module teaches biology and physics content while addressing scientific reasoning abilities in a student-centered format.
Further Research Reading
This structured inquiry-based intervention was accompanied by
scientific questionnaires to evaluate its results, published in the
studies cited below.
Study 1. Learning with the hearing module leads to sustainable
long-term formation of content knowledge. Student learning was
measured immediately after participation and again after two six-week
intervals. Their knowledge level had dropped a bit after six weeks but
then remained stable 12 weeks later, indicating that the students did
not forget the content knowledge. The module is suitable for boys
and girls, and for students who already know a lot or only a little
about the topic. Boys knew more than girls before the course, but
by the end of the intervention both genders had learned and were
on the same level. This approach is therefore a useful option for reducing the gender gap in science classes (Schmid & Bogner, 2015a; this
publication is available open access).
Study 2. To estimate reasons for the long-term effect, we correlated effort, lesson rating, and perceived competence for learning
and subject grades with the learning achievement. We found that if
students invested much effort in the lesson, their achievement was
higher. Effort and long-term achievement depend on each other.
Additionally, science grades are positively linked to long-term
knowledge gain. However, knowing more about the topic beforehand was not linked to knowledge gain (Schmid & Bogner,
2015b; this publication is available open access).
Study 3. We wanted to test whether science motivation can be
enhanced through the inquiry approach. We chose the “Science Motivation Questionnaire” (Glynn et al., 2011). However, the scale
behaved unexpectedly when used for 15-year-old students. The sub-scales “career motivation” and “self-efficacy” were not influenced
through the inquiry course. Self-determination changed over time; it
rose, but after 12 weeks it had fallen below the starting value. We concluded that self-determination can be increased in the short term by
the hearing module. Furthermore, we found that self-determination,
rather than career motivation or self-efficacy, was probably the main
variable underlying daily fluctuation (Schmid & Bogner, 2017).
Our structured inquiry-based hearing module covers sound crea-
tion, transport, and properties; the anatomy of the human ear; the
hearing process and its natural limitations due to illness; and options
for protecting hearing ability from loud sound impacts. It is student
centered, shifting the source of information from the teacher giving
facts and information to the students’ self-directed learning through
reading, thinking, and drawing conclusions from experiments
and models. The lesson connects biology with physics and is aligned
with the NGSS. It leads to long-lasting increases in content knowl-
edge and can help reduce the gender gap in science. It is suitable
for classes with mixed pre-knowledge of the topic and therefore
for all types of students. With its low-budget design and flexible
application spectrum (e.g., use of all stations consecutively or one
station per day; no special room equipment needed), it should be
possible to use the hearing module in all schools and with all class
Achieve, I. (2013). Disciplinary core ideas arrangements of the Next
Generation Science Standards. Cartographic Perspectives, 1.
Blanchard, M.R., Southerland, S.A., Osborne, J. W., Sampson, V.D., Annetta, L.A. &
Granger, E.M. (2010). Is inquiry possible in light of accountability? A
quantitative comparison of the relative effectiveness of guided inquiry and
verification laboratory instruction. Science Education, 94, 577–616.
Glynn, S.M., Brickman, P., Armstrong, N. & Taasoobshirazi, G. (2011). Science
motivation questionnaire II: validation with science majors and non-
science majors. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48, 1159–1176.
Minner, D.D., Levy, A.J. & Century, J. (2010). Inquiry-based science instruction
– what is it and does it matter? Results from a research synthesis years
1984 to 2002. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47, 474–496.
Schmid, S. & Bogner, F.X. (2015a). Does inquiry-learning support long-term
retention of knowledge? International Journal of Learning, Teaching
and Educational Research, 10, 51–70.
Schmid, S. & Bogner, F.X. (2015b). Effects of students’ effort scores in a
structured inquiry unit on long-term recall abilities of content
knowledge. Education Research International, 2015, 1–11.
Schmid, S. & Bogner, F.X. (2017). How an inquiry-based classroom lesson
intervenes in science efficacy, career-orientation and self-determination.
International Journal of Science Education, 39, 2342–2360.
Sotiriou, S., Bybee, R.W. & Bogner, F.X. (2017). Pathways – a case of large-
scale implementation of evidence-based practice in scientific inquiry-
based science education. International Journal of Higher Education,
Wilson, C.D., Taylor, J.A., Kowalski, S.M. & Carlson, J. (2009). The relative
effects and equity of inquiry-based and commonplace science teaching
on students’ knowledge, reasoning, and argumentation. Journal of
Research in Science Teaching, 88, 397–419.
SARAH SCHMID ( email@example.com) and FRANZ X. BOGNER
( firstname.lastname@example.org). The latter is professor and chair of the
Department of Biology Education as well as director of the ZMNU (Centre
of Math & Science Education), University of Bayreuth, Bavaria/Germany.