One-way ANOVAs were used to compare our sample population
(n = 55) to the larger student population (n = 1450) that completed
the survey, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and ACT score. Participant ethnicity was collapsed into two categories (white and nonwhite)
due to low numbers of American Indian, Asian American, and African
Continuous data are reported as means ± standard deviation
and were analyzed using a t-test. Categorical data are reported as
counts and percentages (excluding missing responses) and were
analyzed using a chi-square test. Statistical significance was defined
as P < 0.05.
Samples Were Representative of the Larger
The nonmajors (n = 30) and majors (n = 25) samples were similar
in demographic and affective characteristics (P > 0.05) to the larger
nonmajors and majors groups from the same semester described in
Cotner et al. (2017).
Most participants were female (57% of nonmajors and 64% of
majors) and white (90% of nonmajors and 72% of majors). The
mean ACT score was significantly different (P < 0.001) between non-majors and majors (26 ± 2.86 vs. 30 ± 2.20), a consistent distinction
Figure 1. Survey items on science identity, attitudes, confidence, and activities.