If you choose to do so, you could delve into specific DNA repair
mechanisms. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have built-in DNA
repair mechanisms that include nucleotide excision repair (NER), base
excision repair (BER), and mismatch repair (MMR).
This lesson is a product of the UNC-Chapel Hill Superfund Research
Program (SRP), which was funded by the National Institute of
Environmental Health Sciences (P42ES005948). This activity was
reviewed by SRP researcher James A. Swenberg, DVM, Ph.D.,
and was thoughtfully reviewed and piloted by AP Biology and AP
Environmental Science teacher Donald R. Kirkpatrick of Marion
High School in Marion, South Carolina. The author thanks Sarah
Yelton and Isabella Zuco for their contributions to the preparation
of the manuscript.
ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substance Disease Registry) (2006). Toxicological
profile for vinyl chloride. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp.asp?
id=282&tid=51 [Vinyl Chloride – ToxFAQs, a two-page pdf appropriate
for classroom use, is available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/
Nakamura, J., Mutlu, E., Sharma, V., Collins, L., Bodnar, W., Yu, R. et al.
(2014). The endogenous exposome. DNA Repair, 19, 3–13.
Pottenger, L.H., Andrews, L.S., Bachman, A.N., Boogaard, P.J., Cadet, J.,
Embry, M.R. et al. (2014). An organizational approach for the
assessment of DNA adduct data in risk assessment: case studies
for aflatoxin B1, tamoxifen and vinyl chloride. Crit Rev Toxicol. 44,
Swenberg, J.A., Lu, K., Moeller, B.C., Gao, L., Upton, P.B., Nakamura, J. et al.
(2011) Endogenous versus exogenous DNA adducts: their role in
carcinogenesis, epidemiology, and risk assessment. Toxicological
Sciences, 120(Supplement 1), S130–S145.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2017). TSCA [Toxic Substances
Control Act] Chemical Substance Inventory. https://www.epa.gov/tsca-inventory.
Wild, C.P. (2005). Complementing the genome with an “exposome”: the
outstanding challenge of environmental exposure measurement in
molecular epidemiology. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &
Prevention, 14, 1847–1850.
DANA BROWN HAINE is the K–12 Science Education Manager for the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill’s Institute for the Environment,
CB no. 1105, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; email: email@example.com.