country (Humaneous Anatomeus), such as with the respiratory and
renal systems to regulate the pH of body fluids.
We would like to acknowledge Adam Davis, Linda Hyde, and Chris
Swars at Gordon State College, ChulHee Kang at Washington State
University, and Brian Ciliax at Emory School of Medicine for helpful
suggestions on the manuscript, and the students enrolled in Anatomy
and Physiology I class during Spring Semester of 2016 at Gordon State
College. This work was presented at the 2016 and 2017 Teaching Mat-
ters Conferences hosted by GSC, University System of Georgia.
Ambrose, S., Bridges, M. W., DePietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K.
(2010). How Learning Works: 7 Research-Based Principles for Smart
Teaching. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Figure 6. Student’s poster showing the selected figures from four modules to link three organ systems for the actions of cranial
sensory and motor functions: smell, vision, eyelid and eyeball movement, chewing, taste, facial expression, salivation, equilibrium
and hearing, swallowing, taste, and somatic sensation from body, head and neck movements, and speech.
Table 3. Mean score of students’ survey of the modules.
1 Before the semester began, I did not know how skeletal markings linked with nerves. 4.2
2 Overall, I understand how cranial nerves pass through skeletal marking to get to the effectors. 3.9
3 Before the semester began, I was familiar with skeletal, muscular and nervous system. 3.2
4 Overall, this exercise improved my understanding and appreciation for the processes and techniques used
to analyze each organ system’s contribution for smiling, chewing etc.
5 I have a better understanding of the relationship between the anatomical structures and processes of
physiology after performing those exercises than if I had just heard about them in lecture or read a
6 Linking organ systems was easier than I initially thought it would be. 4.1
7 I feel more comfortable using the online resources and hands-on activities at anatomy lab now than I did
before starting this exercise.