then attempt to apply their understanding of meiosis to explain
how polyploidy occurs.
The five-phase process introduced above is a practical approach
for preparing an effective lesson. As has been demonstrated,
the five-phase approach can help teachers design a concept-based lesson plan that focuses on the development of student
understanding of scientific concepts. Additionally, learning situations designed for the instruction process can provide students
opportunities to gain an understanding through their own explorations. Proposing questions and then seeking evidence to
answer them is the basic way in which scientists study the world
and is how scientific knowledge is produced. Meaningful learning occurs when students experience this exploration and production of knowledge. Content knowledge and practice must
be intertwined in designing learning experiences (National
Research Council, 2012, 2013). A lesson plan designed using
the five-phase approach integrates concepts with practices and
contributes to the development of an understanding of concepts
as well as practical abilities.
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Figure 4. Students’ modified models of meiosis. Most of the students, if not all, demonstrated a scientific understanding of