• Genes encode the information for making specific proteins,
which are responsible for the specific traits of an individual (LS3).
These concepts are also highly relevant to AP biology on pro-
tein structure and functions (College Board, 2015, 4.A.1). The
protein folding experiment adds an important concept to this chain
• Genes do not directly dictate the protein structure, but indirectly through determining its amino acid sequence that in turn
dictates the higher order structure.
Figure 1. Outline of the RNase refolding experiments done by Anfinsen. RNase is first unfolded and then refolds back into its
native shape when denaturants are removed. But in the presence of urea, RNase refolds into “scrambled” protein by randomly
formed disulfide bonds.
Figure 2. Flow and translation of information from genes to traits.