This is the start to understanding the relationship between genome
and proteome, and between genotype and phenotype. The discus-
sion will likely take 20+ minutes to adequately complete, and the
teacher may want to give an additional 5 minutes for students to
complete their answers to the questions associated with part 2,
once the discussion is finished.
Figure 3. Chain identifiers (A) are used to help students find the general location for each of the eight coded chains within the
full “shape sequence” (D). This is analogous to the promoter regions that aid in RNA polymerase identification of transcription start
sites. (B, C) The decoders for determining which color and size of paper is to be used for making the paper chains. These are the
exact same decoders as used to decode the genetic code. The only difference is that A, C, G, and U are substituted for the four
shapes, and each amino acid has been substituted with a paper chain color and size determinant. (D) Sequence of shapes that
contain embedded codes for the paper chains. This is analogous to the genome, in which genes are embedded within
continuous nucleotide sequences (chromosomes). The gene transcription site must be identified (identifiers; promoter regions),
the translation start site is required (start codon), and then the sequence of codons must be decoded such that the paper chain
(peptide chain) is created in the correct sequence from the start to the stop codon.