followed by a clear demonstration of how the scientific theory adequately explains the phenomenon. The approach suggested here is
to employ graphs and some basic statistical concepts to guide students through the process of population thinking. In other words,
they need to be aware of the emergent and transgenerational nature
of evolution by natural selection. This requires that students have
an understanding of basic concepts from statistics, like the concepts
of distribution, average, and variance. When the I2 strategy is used
on the graphs derived from the two cases of natural selection in
action described here, students see that selection acts on individuals and many of them die; individual organisms do not change in
order to survive. Evolutionary change emerges at the population
level, in the proportions of individuals with different variations.
The I2 strategy can be used to scaffold students’ efforts to
understand any type of figure found in scientific papers and textbooks. When students work on the I2 strategy in pairs or small
groups, teachers can facilitate the kind of student talk that promotes learning of both content and science practices. In short,
using I2 to guide students in the interpretation of data helps them
learn to think like biologists (Handelsman et al., 2004; Tanner,
2009; BSCS, 2012a, b).
The authors have received support from HHMI to present professional development workshops for educators featuring the use of
HHMI BioInteractive resources. This publication was prepared
and submitted independent of any HHMI support.
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KAREN LUCCI teaches Honors Biology and AP Biology at Hopewell Valley
Central High School, Pennington, NJ 08534; email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
ROBERT A. COOPER recently retired from Pennsbury High School in
Fairless Hills, PA, where he taught General Biology, Honors Biology, and